In chart and on chart spread:
1. Box Quote.
In 2008, the U.N. Conference on Trade and Development and the U.N. Environment Program issued a paper (www.unep-unctad.org/cbtf/publications/UNCTAD_DITC_TED_2007_15.pdf) called “Organic Agriculture and Food Security in Africa.” It concludes: “Organic agriculture can increase agricultural productivity and can raise incomes with low-cost, locally available and appropriate technologies, without causing environmental damage. Furthermore, evidence shows that organic agriculture can build up natural resources, strengthen communities and improve human capacity, thus improving food security by addressing many different causal factors simultaneously … Organic and near-organic agricultural methods and technologies are ideally suited for many poor, marginalized smallholder farmers in Africa, as they require minimal or no external inputs, use locally and naturally available materials to produce high-quality products, and encourage a whole systemic approach to farming that is more diverse and resistant to stress.
2. CO2 graphic courtesy of NewFarm.org.
Data and further information in “Organic Farming Combats Global Warming—Big Time” http://www.rodaleinstitute.org/ob_31
- International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Technology and Development study at http://www.agassessment.org/reports/IAASTD/EN/Agriculture at a Crossroads_Executive Summary of the Synthesis Report (English).pdf
- More about dangerous “inert” ingredients in pesticides at Chemical Research in Toxicology January 2009;22(1):97-105 d. More information about health risks of atrazine exposure at Environmental Health News http://www.environmentalhealthnews.org/ehs/newscience/prebirth-atrazine-increases-risk-of-small-birth-size/ and also at Royal Society of Chemistry http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2009/November/03110901.asp and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1469905/pdf/envhper00328-0130.pdf and http://www.panna.org/resources/specific-pesticides/atrazine
- More information on “superweeds” may be found in the New York Times and many other publications http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/04/business/energy-environment/04weed.html Already more than 130 types of weeds have developed levels of herbicide resistance in more than 40 U.S. states, more resistant weeds than found in any other country. Experts estimate glyphosate-resistant weeds have infested close to 11 million acres (4.5 million hectares), threatening U.S. farmers’ yields.
- Badgley et al. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 22, 86 (2007). Peer-reviewed studies, such as that by C. Badgley et al show that organic yields are very similar to chemical yields, but that organic out-performs chemical ag in drought years and in developing nations. The study cited above shows that the average yield ratio (organic: non-organic) of food crops is 0.92 (160 examples) for developed countries and 1.80 (133 examples) for developing countries – i.e.. slightly higher yields for conventional ag in developed countries and slightly higher yields for organic ag in developing countries where most food insecure people live. b. The short list of banned pesticides was provided in a phone conversation with scienctist Karl Tupper at the Pesticide Action Network North America (www.panna.org). For a full list of banned pesticides see http://scorecard.goodguide.com/chemical-groups/one-list.tcl?short_list_name=brpest
- The Scientific American June 2009 http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=weed-whacking-herbicide-p discusses the harmful effects of the “inert” ingredients in pesticides. Further scientific documentation about dangerous “inert” ingredients may be found in Chemical Research in Toxicology January 2009;22(1):97
- Reuters News Service, April 8, 2011 http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/04/08/us-glyphosate-epa-idUSTRE7374WX20110408 reported that Monsanto made over $2 billion in sales of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides in 2010. World annual spending on herbicide totals more than $14 billion, with more than $5 billion of that spent in the United States alone, according to the EPA. More than 2 billion lbs of herbicide were used globally in 2007, with one quarter of that total – 531 million lbs – used in the United States in that timeframe, according to a report issued in February by the EPA.The top users are farmers. In 2007 alone, for instance, as much as 185 million lbs of glyphosate was used by U.S. farmers, double the amount used only six years earlier.